GI Cancer Gurgaon

Gastro Intestinal Cancer

Paras Hospitals, Gurgaon  is the leading hospital providing comprehensive third generation cancer care, treatment and management. Supported by a team of reputed medical cancer specialists, surgical cancer specialists for cancer, the hospital provides state of the art technology and clinical protocols of international standards to the cancer patients.

TYPES OF CANCER

Paras Hospitals, Gurgaon  specialises in the diagnosis, detection and treatment of an extensive list of cancers.

OESOPHAGEAL CANCER

Oesophageal cancer is when abnormal cells in the food pipe (oesophagus) grow in an uncontrolled way. The oesophagus is also known as the gullet. It is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Most people are over the age of 60 when they are diagnosed. The most common symptoms of oesophageal cancer include:

  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Persistent indigestion or heartburn
  • Weight loss
  • Pain in your throat or behind your breastbone
  • A cough that won't go away
  • Coughing up blood
  • Dark stools
You should see your doctor if you have difficulty swallowing, or you have symptoms that are unusual for you or that won't go away. Your symptoms are unlikely to be cancer but it is important to get them checked by a doctor. Your treatment depends on where in the oesophagus (food pipe) your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread anywhere else in your body and your general health. A team of doctors and other professionals discuss the best treatment and care for you. Your treatment options will include – surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, radio-chemotherapy. Surgery is the best option and may include the removal of the oesophageus or Endoscopic mucosal resection - removing the lining of the oesophagus

STOMACH CANCER

Stomach cancer is cancer that starts anywhere inside the stomach or the stomach wall. It’s also called gastric cancer. Stomach cancer is more common in men than women. More than 5 out of 10 cases (50%) occur in people aged 75 or over. Many stomach cancers are linked to lifestyle or environmental factors, including diet. Stomach cancer is linked with a bacteria that lives in the stomach called Helicobacter pylori. But not everyone with Helicobacter pylori will develop stomach cancer. The most common symptoms of stomach cancer include:

  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Weight loss
  • Persistent indigestion (dyspepsia)
  • Feeling full after eating small amounts
  • Sickness
  • Pain in your tummy (upper abdomen) or behind your breastbone (sternum).
  • Vomiting
  • Early and advanced stomach cancer can bleed into the stomach
  • Tiredness
  • Dark stools
Your treatment depends on where in the stomach your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread anywhere else in your body and your general health. A team of doctors and other professionals discuss the best treatment and care for you. Your treatment options will include – surgery, chemotherapy, biological therapies. Surgery for Stomach Cancer: Surgery is the best option and may include Surgery to remove your stomach, to relieve the symptoms or Endoscopic mucosal resection - removing the lining of the stomach

PANCREATIC CANCER

Pancreatic cancer is cancer that starts in the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland that produces digestive juices and hormones. The symptoms vary depending on where the cancer is in the pancreas – in the head, body or tail. The most common type of pancreatic cancer starts in the cells that produce digestive juices and is called an exocrine tumour. The common symptoms associated with Pancreatic Cancer include –

  • Pain in the stomach or the back
  • Jaundice
  • Weight loss
  • Diabetes
  • Itching
  • Sickness
  • Bowel changes
  • Fever
  • Indigestion
  • Blood clots

Your treatment depends on the position of the cancer in the pancreas, how big it is, whether it has spread, and your general health. Your treatment options will include –surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery is the best option for pancreatic cancer treatment and may include the following procedures Total pancreatectomy (removal of pancreas) , Distal pancreatectomy (removal of the body and tail of the pancreas), Pylorus preserving pancreaticduodenectomy (PPPD)- A PPPD operation means removing: the head of your pancreas, the duodenum - the first part of the small bowel (intestine), gallbladder, part of the bile duct or Kausch Whipple operation – this a part of the stomach is also removed.

NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS

Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare tumours that develop in cells of the neuroendocrine system. There are a number of different types. The type you have depends on the particular cells that the cancer starts in. There are a number of different types of NET. They are generally called after the organ or type of cell they develop in. NETs most often develop in the gut or pancreas. These tumours are sometimes grouped together and called gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours or GEP NETs for short. The different types of neuroedocrine tumors is - Lung neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), Stomach neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), Insulinoma, Gastrinoma, Somatostatinoma, Glucagonoma, Merkel cell skin cancer and Carcinoid. The type of treatment you have depends on which type of NET you have and whether it has spread elsewhere in the body.

Treatment might include one of the following or a combination:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Drug treatment to control symptoms caused by the extra hormones
SMALL BOWEL CANCER

The small bowel makes up most of the digestive tract. Cancers of the small bowel are rare. Cancers that have spread to the small bowel from another part of the body, are called secondary cancers. Tumours of the small bowel may be either non cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Benign tumours include polyps and lipomas. Cancers of the small bowel are rare. Most cases of small bowel cancer are found in the duodenum. Different types of small bowel cancers include - adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lymphomas, Sarcomas and secondary cancers. Small bowel cancer symptoms include:

  • pain in your abdomen
  • weight loss
  • feeling and being sick
  • diarrhoea
  • tiredness
Other possible symptoms may include bleeding and a blockage in the bowel but these are rare. Other conditions that affect the bowel can cause all these symptoms too. Many of these are less serious than cancer, such as irritable bowel disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment for small bowel cancer can include:
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Biological therapies
  • Surgery is the main treatment for cancer of the small bowel. During surgery, your doctor will remove the tumour, as well as a border of healthy tissue surrounding it. The amount of bowel you need to have removed will depend on the size and the position of your cancer.
  • Sometimes your surgeon needs to remove other organs. Your surgeon could remove your pancreas, if the cancer is at the top end of your small bowel. Or if the cancer is at the lower end of your small bowel, your surgeon could remove part of your large bowel. Your surgeon removes any lymph nodes nearby in case any cancer cells have spread there.

    LIVER CANCER
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this is the most common type of liver cancer
    • Fibrolamellar cancer, a rare type of HCC
    • Intra hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which starts in the section of bile ducts inside the liver
    • Angiosarcoma (or haemangiosarcoma), which starts in the blood vessels of the liver and is extremely rare
    • Hepatoblastoma, is a rare childhood cancer

    Cancer that starts in the liver (primary liver cancer) don't usually cause symptoms in the early stages. When you do have symptoms, they can include:

    • Weight loss
    • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
    • Itching
    • Feeling sick
    • Swollen tummy (abdomen)
    • Loss of appetite or feeling full after eating small amounts
    • Pain in your abdomen of your right shoulder
    • A lump in the right side of your abdomen

    Your treatment depends on where in the liver your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread anywhere else in your body and your general health. A team of doctors and other professionals discuss the best treatment and care for you. Your treatment options will include – surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and biological therapies. Surgery is the best option for liver cancer and may include - Liver resection and lobectomy (removal of the liver) or liver transplant.

    GALL BLADDER CANCER

    Gallbladder cancer is a cancer that begins in the gallbladder, which is part of the digestive system. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women than in men. About 7 out of every 10 cases diagnosed are in women. Gallbladder cancer doesn’t usually cause symptoms in its early stages. So by the time you know it’s there, it might be at a more advanced stage than some other types of cancer. At diagnosis, it has often spread outside the gallbladder itself to areas nearby. It can be difficult for doctors to feel if your gallbladder is swollen or tender when they examine you. The gallbladder lies behind other organs deep inside your body, so it can be difficult to feel. Many early stage cancers of the gallbladder are found by chance. For example, when someone is having their gallbladder taken out to treat gallstones. You may get a number of symptoms with gallbladder cancer. Most of these happen in the later stages of the disease. Common signs and symptoms include

    • Tummy (abdominal) pain
    • Feeling or being sick
    • Jaundice
    • Gallbladder enlargement
    • Loss of appetite (anorexia)
    • Loss of weight without dieting
    • A swollen tummy (abdomen)

    The type of a cancer tells you which type of cell it started in. There are several types of gallbladder cance – Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell cancer, Adenosquamous cancer, Small cell cancer, Sarcoma, Neuroendocrine tumour. Your treatment depends on where in the gallbadder your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread anywhere else in your body and your general health. A team of doctors and other professionals discuss the best treatment and care for you. Your treatment options will include – surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

    GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of thegastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The signs and symptoms of stomach cancer can include:

    • Poor appetite.
    • Weight loss (without trying)
    • Abdominal (belly) pain.
    • Vague discomfort in the abdomen, usually above the navel.
    • A sense of fullness in the upper abdomen after eating a small meal.
    • Heartburn or indigestion.
    • Nausea.
    • Vomiting, with or without blood
    Depending on the stage of esophageal cancer the patient may undergo surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Other measures that may improve symptoms include stretching or dilation, tube prosthesis (stent) and radiation or laser treatment to reduce the size of the cancer. Surgery is the best option for Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer.

    COLORECTAL CANCER

    Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common. Cancer starts when cells in the body start to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. Adenocarcinomas make up about 96% of colorectal cancers. The other types of colorectal cancers include - Carcinoid tumors, Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), Lymphomas and Sarcomas. If you’ve been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, your cancer care team will discuss your treatment options with you. Surgery is often the main treatment for earlier-stage colon cancers. The type of surgery used depends on the stage (extent) of the cancer, where it is, and the goal of the surgery. The common surgery options are – polypectomy and local excision, Colectomy, hemicolectomy, partial colectomy, or segmental resection, total colectomy, Open colectomy and Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy.

    ANAL CANCER

    Anal cancer is cancer that starts in the anus. This is the opening at the very end of the large bowel. It is a rare cancer. Anal cancer is more common in women than men. Around 50 out of 100 cases (50%) occur in people aged 65 or over. Many anal cancers are linked to lifestyle or other risk factors. The main risk factor for anal cancer is human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The common signs and symptoms associated with anal cancer include:

    • Bleeding - bleeding from the back passage (rectal bleeding)
    • Pain - pain around your anal area
    • Sensation of a lump - 1 in 3 people (30%) feel the sensation of a lump around their anus
    • Severe itching - Severe itching (pruritus) in the area around your anus.
    • Discharge of mucus from your back passage
    • Bowel change
    • The treatment for anal cancer can include – chemotherapy, surgery or radiation therapy. Surgery is the best option for treatment and the same may include procedures such as Local resection of the tumor and Abdominoperineal resection

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