Oral Cancer & Risk Factors | Blog By Dr. Anshu Jindal Paras Bliss, Panchkula
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Oral Cancer & Risk Factors

Oral Cancer & Risk Factors

by: Dr. Anshu Jindal
Sr. Consultant- Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry - Paras Bliss, Panchkula

Oral Cancer can be defined as a silent killer and accounts for more than 1 million cases in India per year. It is also known as mouth cancer and has a higher incidence rate in men as compared to women due to the smoking and tobacco usage habit. In oral cancer, the cancerous tissues start developing in the oral cavity and can affect the entire mouth, jaw or the tongue. If you are a chronic smoker or chew tobacco, and if you detect any abnormality in your mouth while chewing or talking, it is best recommended that you consult a specialist at the earliest.

COMMON SITES  FOR ORAL CANCER

  • Most commonly involve the tongue
  • Occurs on the mouth floor
  • Cheek lining, Gingiva(gums), lips or palate.

ORAL CANCER – TYPES

INTRAORAL


PRIMARY

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Major or Minor Salivary
  • Melanoma(cancer that develop from the pigment containing melanocytes)
  • Verrucous Carcinoma (formof cancer often seen in those who chew tobacco and use snuff orally)

SYSTEMIC

  • Metastatic Carcinoma(spread from the primary site of origin into different areas of the body)
  • Multiple Myeloma (Cancer that develops in the plasma cells found in the soft, spongy tissue at the centre of your bones
  • Lymphoma & Leukemia
  • Kaposi’s Sarcoma (cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue, in mouth lining, nose and throat, lymph nodes or in other organs)

PERIORAL

  • Malignancy of the maxillary sinus
  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Cervical lymph node metastasis
  • Cancer affecting the parotid and submandibular salivary gland

ORAL CANCER – SYMPTOMS

  • Persistent red or white patches
  • Non-healing ulcer
  • Progressive swelling or enlargement
  • Bleedingloose teeth
  • Altered sensation(paraesthesia, hyperesthesia and anaesthesia)
  • Difficulty in swallowing)
  • Diplopia
  • Increased salivation

ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS

The causes for oral cancer are multifactorial

TOBACCO

  • Used in the form of chewing tobacco, cigarettes or snuff
  • Tobacco use frequency and duration
  • Smoking can lead to throat or mouth cancer

BETEL QUID

DIET AND NUTRITION

ACCUMULATION OF HIGH DOSES OF X-RAYS OVER PERIOD OF YEARS

FUNGAL INFECTION

VIRAL INFECTION

IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION-

Intake of drugs suppresses the immune system mainly those which are used to treat certain immune diseases or prevent rejection of transplant organ, can increase the risk of oral cancer

CHRONIC MECHANICAL IRRITATION (sharp teeth, sharp dentures edges)

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