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5 Types of Paediatric Cancer You Need to Know About

5 Types of Paediatric Cancer You Need to Know About
in Oncology

Apr 19, 2022

 There are Five types of pediatric or child cancer:-

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

The most common child cancer, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is responsible for about 34 %  of all cancers amongst children. ALL typically occurs between the age groups of 2 and 4, and is more common amongst male as compared to females. Leukemia begins in the bone marrow & spreads into the blood, and can spread to the organs.

Symptoms of ALL:

  • Bone and joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Bleeding
  • Fever
  • Weight loss

Brain Tumor

Brain tumors & other nervous system tumors account for about 27 % of child cancers. There are various types of brain tumors & the treatment and outlook for all is different. Most of the brain tumors in kids develop in the lower area of the brain, like  the cerebellum or brain stem.


  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Balance problems
  • Vision, hearing or speech problems
  • Normal vomiting


Neuroblastoma begins from immature nerve cells amongst infants & young children. It is primarily identified in children younger than 5 years.


  • Impaired ability to walk
  • Changes in eyes (bulging, dark circles, droopy eyelids)
  • Pain in various locations of the body
  • Diarrhea
  • High blood pressure

Wilms Tumors

Wilms Tumors begin in the kidneys & are the most common kind of child  kidney cancer. Wilms tumors typically form in 1 kidney, however, sometimes they also form in both kidneys- only in smaller cases – and is responsible for  approximately  5 % of all child cancers.


  • Swelling or lump in the belly
  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Nausea
  • Poor appetite


Lymphoma starts in certain cells of the immune system called lymphocytes. These cancers affect lymph nodes and other lymph tissues, like the tonsils or thymus. There are two main type of lymphoma:

  • Hodgkin lymphoma, sometimes its known as Hodgkin disease. It is rare in children below 5. This kind  of cancer is very similar in adults & children, including the  type of treatment that best works .
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur in younger children than Hodgkin lymphoma, but it is still rare in children younger than 3. The most common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children are different from those in adults.