For anal cancer, there are 3 important types of treatment like surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including:
- The type, stage and grade of cancer
- Possible side effects
- The patient’s preferences
- The patient’s overall health
Surgery– Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. The type of surgery for anal cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery. Surgery for anal cancer may also be performed by a colorectal surgeon, who specializes in surgery on the colon or rectum.Anal carcinoma in situ or initial cancer can often be treated by removing the abnormal cells and a small area of the surrounding healthy tissue, which is called a margin
Radiation therapy-Radiation Therapy- It is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. The most common type of radiation treatment is known as external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. When radiation treatment is given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time
Chemotherapy- It is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, basically by ending the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. A chemotherapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive one drug at a time or combinations of different drugs given at the same time. Patients with both anal cancer and HIV may need to receive lower doses of chemotherapy. It depends on the degree to which the patient’s immune system is compromised by the HIV.