Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions when blood cannot clot properly. Normal clotting involves platelets, proteins in the blood called clotting factors. Bleeding and bruising can occur from either too few or abnormal platelets, abnormal or low amount of clotting factors or abnormal blood vessels.
Causes of abnormal bruising:
Can be caused by infections, drugs, malignancy, bone marrow infiltrative diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency, collagen vascular disorders, chronic liver disease, immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Causes of abnormal bleeding:
Symptoms of bleeding disorders may include:
Investigations that can be done to know the cause may include :
Complete blood count – To see platelet count
Prothrombin time (PT) – For diagnosis
Activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) – For diagnosis
Peripheral blood smear – To look for any abnormal cells
Liver function test – To evaluate for chronic liver disease
Renal function test – To evaluate for chronic kidney disease
Platelet function activity – To see for factor inhibitors
Mixing studies and inhibitor and Factor assays – To evaluate for connective tissue disorders and diagnose hemophilia or von Willebrand disease
Treatment should be according to the cause.