Dengue is one of the most common types of mosquito borne disease. It is one of the leading cause of mortality especially in a high-risk group like children, persons who are immune compromised & suffering from chronic disease like diabetes, renal failure, sickle cell anemia and other hemopoietic malignancies. Dengue Fever is caused by one of the four strains of dengue virus type 1 to 4. The most common vector of dengue is Aedes Aegyptics.
The incidence of dengue fever is most common in areas with inadequate water supply, poor solid waste management infrastructure and it is reported to have a higher incidence in rainy seasons especially from July to October. The Incubation period of dengue fever is usually for 4-10 days. Hence the signs and symptoms for the same may start to appear to post the 10 days time.
Sign & Symptoms of Dengue
Dengue is typically present with high-grade fever, with a frontal headache, retro-orbital pain, back pain and severe myalgia. In dengue, the muscle borne pain is so severe that it is also called as break bone fever. In dengue generally after 3-5 days, a rash develops which usually begins on the trunk & later spreads to the extremities & the face. Other signs of dengue fever are anorexia, nausea & vomiting & macular cutaneous hypersensitivity.
Diagnosis of Dengue
Diagnosis of Dengue is done by raising the hemaritic with leucopenia and thermocytopnia. Liver function test may show elevated SGOT& SGPT level. In the case of severe dengue fever signs of another organ environment may be seen. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of antigen (NS1) antigen in initial 4 days of infection and later on by IGM Aelisa and RTPCI. During the course of illness regular monitoring of hematocrite and platelet count is necessary.