Diabetes: Symptoms and Complications

Prediabetes takes place when our blood glucose is more than it should be, however, not high enough to be diabetes. Around 15% – 30% of individuals having pre-diabetes would develop type 2 diabetes in 5 years. You are more likely to suffer from diabetes if you have any family history of the same. Please note that India is the country with the highest number of diabetics and pre-diabetics in the world. More than 50 million people suffer from pre-diabetes and are unaware of their signs and symptoms. Early detection and timely treatment is important for diabetes management and control.

Risk Factors that can lead to Type 2 Diabetes:

Prediabetes is a condition that can lead to diabetes. Your lifestyle, family history, and other factors can be strong causes if developing Type 2 Diabetes.

Some of the main causes are:

  • Being overweight
  • Leading a sedentary lifestyle
  • Having pre-diabetes or gestational diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes

Usual symptoms of diabetes comprise of:

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst & hunger
  • Fatigue or drowsiness
  • Blurry vision
  • Itchy, dry skin
  • Slow recovering wounds

Important Signs to Lookout for in Diabetes:

  • Dark Patches in the underarms: Type 2 diabetes can lead to dark patches within skin folds in our armpits & neck. As type 2 diabetes often takes long to diagnose, the patient may feel the symptoms at the time of the diagnosis, such as numbness or pain in his feet.
  • Weight Loss: Type 1 diabetes often grows more quickly & can lead to symptoms such as weight loss or even a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis could occur when we have a very high blood sugar but no or little insulin in our body.
  • Lifestyle and Age: Symptoms in both types could appear at any age, but usually type 1 takes place in kids & young adults. Types 2 takes place in individuals above 45 years of age. However, younger individuals are increasingly being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes because of increasing weight and sedentary lifestyles.

Potential Complications of Diabetes:

Diabetes complications usually grow with time. People with poorly controlled levels of blood sugar have increased the risk of severe complications which can also become lethal. Chronic complications comprise of:

  • Vessel disease, resulting in stroke or heart attack
  • Retinopathy or eye problems
  • Infection or the skin conditions
  • Neuropathy or nerve damage
  • Nephropathy or kidney damage
  • Amputations because of vascular disease or neuropathy
  • Type 2 diabetes could raise the risk of growing Alzheimer’s disease, especially if our blood sugar is not properly controlled.

Complications During Pregnancy Due To Diabetes:

High levels of blood sugar during pregnancy could harm mother & child, thus increasing the risks such as:

  • Preeclampsia
  • High Blood pressure
  • Birth defects
  • Miscarriage or stillbirth