Since ages, various efforts have been made to categorize human body on the basis of physical structure. In 1940, William Sheldon proposed a theory that there are three body types that are inherited though genetic makeup. According to this theory, the type of body mainly determines one’s body size and shape that are based on skeletal frame and body composition. According to your body type you should have eating habits. If you have habits are not as per your body type, it can affect your health and create havoc in your body in the form of complications. The three body types are as follows:-
- Endomorph: – There are on average heavier, taller and have relatively more fat. The body shape looks wide, round, soft and curvy. They usually have a round face and weight around their waist. Buttocks and thighs also tend to be larger. Extreme endomorphs have pear shaped bodies with narrow soulders and wide hips. Endomorphs usually have higher number of fat cells and low Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) that require less energy for their metabolism.
Diet for this body type is high fibre, low calorie such as green vegetables, green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits (without peal), whole grain cereals and pulses (e.g. Dalia, oat, whole wheat flour, brown rice, rajmah, sprouted green gram, or red gram, etc.) are beneficial. High fat such as ghee, butter, lard, mayonnaise, margarine, cheese, cream, etc, caffeine and alcohol should avoid for this type of body.
Mesomorph:- Mesomorphs have more muscle and bone mass, less body fat, broad shoulders and narrow hips. They have less risk of obesity. They are usually more involved in physical activity and sport without much effort.
In general, high protein such as egg, lean fish & chicken, milk and milk products etc, complex carbohydrates (e.g. whole wheat flour, Dalia, oat, whole grain cereals, etc) and normal fat contain diet is recommended for this body type.
- Ectomorph:- They are tall, lean and slim. They have less muscle and found it difficult to gain weight. The Ectomorph body type has been categorized as:
- Android (Apple shape): The upper part of the body or trunk (around shoulder, neck and face) has more fat deposition. Apple shaped bodies tend to increase risk for high cholesterol, higher triglycerides, higher blood glucose level and hypertension indicating risk of diabetes, CVD and cancer.
Low fat (especially heart healthy monounsaturated fat e.g. nuts, avocados and olive oil preferable), high fibre (e.g. green vegetables, green leafy vegetables, salad, fresh fruits, complex carbohydrates rich foods are beneficial for apple shape body.
- Gynoid:- Fat deposition is more in lower part of the body (around waist and abdomen) and such individuals may have abdominal obesity and are at high risk of diabetes, heart disease, breast cancer and its associated disorders. In general, low calorie, low fat, high fibre, simple sugar restricted (especially sugar, jiggery, honey, glucose, etc) diet is recommended for this body type.