Hernia is defined as protrusion of viscera through the wall that contains it. It is a common occurrence and medical complication amongest both men and women. There are various types of hernias ranging from congenital to inguinal. The treatment for each depends on the location, the situation of the complication and the existing medical conditions.
Types of Abdominal Wall Hernia:
- Inguinal hernia
- Incisional hernia
- Femoral hernia
- Umbilical and ventral hernia.
Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia, next commonest is incisional hernia.
Causes of Hernia:
Muscle weakness and strain are the two most common causes of abdominal wall hernia. It may be congenial also.Muscle weakness is mainly because of:
- Weak scar following surgery
- Chronic cough/constipation
- Congenial defect
Various factors that predispose to increase abdominal strain are:-
- Weight lifting
- Chronic cough
- Chronic constipation
Symptoms of Hernia:
Swelling, pain discomfort are the commonest symptoms of uncomplicated hernia.
Complications of Hernias:
Irreducibility, obstruction and strangulation are complications of Hernia which increases morbidity and mortality of patient.
Management of Hernias:
Surgery is recommended for most types of hernias to prevent complications like obstruction of the bowel or strangulation which can lead to death if not intervened at appropriate time. There is no fix guideline that particular factors will leads to complications of hernia. Hence surgery is recommended for most abdominal wall hernia.
Types of Hernia Surgeries:
- Minimal access hernia surgery[MAS]/less scar hernia surgery:-
- Less pain, less scar early return to work are the classical advantages of MAS.
- Open hernia repair
- Conventional large incision is made, suitable for large irreducible hernia. Pain, recovery time is more than the minimal access surgery.
Most hernia patient should undergo surgery without any delay to prevent complication and morbidity of hernia. Choice of surgery to be decided after proper discussion with patient.