Adolescence is a critical stage between childhood and adulthood, characterized by significant physical, psychological and social transitions. The transitions happening during this stage also carry significant new and critical risks but are also associated with opportunities to positively influence the immediate and future health of young people. Adolescence is a period of life with specific health and developmental needs and rights. It is also a time to develop knowledge and skills, learning around managing emotions and relationships and acquire attributes and abilities that will be important for enjoying the adolescent years and assuming adult roles. Adolescents should be encouraged to indulge in external sports and regular exercise and to ignore junk food to avoid obesity as it leads to medical problems like hypertension, cardiac disease which happens in adulthood.
Exercise and physical activity increase self esteem and confidence and also decrease anxiety and stress.
The five leading characteristics of adolescence are biological growth and development, an undefined status, increased decision making, increased pressures and the search for self. The teenagers reported worrying mostly about chronic conditions such as acne, menstrual disorders, emotional problems, dental problems and being overweight. Some of these conditions can be treated if care is sought. The psychosocial problems most important to the adolescents were school and family problems.
Physical development refers to the bodily changes including growth, improved gross and fine motor skills and biological maturity. In early adolescence, the young adolescent body undergoes more developmental change than at any other time except from birth to two years old. Adolescence is a transitional stage in physical and psychological development that is generally confined to the period from puberty to legal adulthood. Accordingly, adolescence is considered as a crucial stage in human life that needs utmost parental care, guidance and empathy.