Autism is one of the developmental disabilities. It is mainly characterized by trial of impaired sociably impaired verbal & non verbal communication & restricted activities & interests.
Frequency of ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) has increased significantly in past two decades. Symptoms often change with age. Atypical eye contact, decreased response to name, poor imitation, absent social smile, passive temperament & delayed language are early markers of the disorder.
Few autistic children regress between 1-3 years. Few others by school age. Some genetic and metabolic disorders are associated with Autism. Most children with ASD are intellectually disabled (70-85 %).
Verbal and non verbal communication disturb are cardinal feature of ASD.Different types of linguistic problems are seen.Repititive stereotypes phrases are common. Some script from videos they watch over& over. They have abnormalities of play.Repititive stereotypies & indiscriminate sensory use of objects (knocking, rubbing) is noted.
Social disfunction is cardinal features of ASD.They tend to talk at other people. Some children do not follow their parents around, run to greet them. They have restricted range of behavior, interest & activities. They tend to have repetitive stereotyped behavior like rocking, kicking, opening & closing door.
Diagnosis is mainly clinical. Different scales are used for screening Neurological exam is generally normal. But we should look for microsephily; features of dimorphism, hearing impairment.EEG abnormalities are also seen. Tuberous is one disease which should be looked for especially apart from other genetic & metabolic disorder. Early diagnosis is important. Preschool children should receive special education, behavioral modification program. Social skill groups & video modeling are used. Animated mechanicals may enhance emotional skills.
Some medicines are required for ASD children depending on issues like for hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive behavior, aggressive, stereotypes, psychosis & seizures.