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Kidney Cancer: Symptoms , Diagnosis and Treatment

The kidneys are organs in our body that help in getting rid of waste, while also regulating fluid balance. There are tiny tubules in our kidney called tubules. They help filter the blood and in excreting waste and help make urine. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) occurs when cancer cells start growing uncontrollably in the lining of the tubules of the kidney. It is fast growing cancer and often spreads to the lungs and surrounding organs.

Kidney cancer is also known as renal cancer and that originates in the lining of the proximal tubule. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Around 208,500 of new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed every year.

Causes and symptoms of kidney cancer

Two types of Kidney cancer are:

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma – Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney.
  2. Transitional Cell Carcinoma- Also called urothelial carcinoma (UCC), is a type of cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system. It is the most common type of bladder cancer and cancer of the ureter, urethra, and urachus.

Signs and symptoms are of Kidney Cancer :        

  1. Flank Pain
  2. Abdominal Pain
  3. Hematuria
  4. Malaise
  5. Weight Loss
  6. Decrease in appetite
  7. Anaemia
  8. Hypertension
  9. Hypercalciuria
  10. Fever

Causes of Kidney cancer are:

  1. Obesity
  2. Smoking
  3. Hypertension
  4. NSAID
  5. Moderate Alcohol Consumption
  6. Genetics

Pathophysiology

Renal cancer originates in the kidney at two sites

  1. Renal tubule
  2. Renal pelvis

Staging of the Kidney Cancer

If kidney cancer is diagnosed, we have to learn the stage of the disease to help in choosing the best treatment. The stage is based on the size of the kidney tumor and whether the cancer has invaded nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body.

When cancer spreads from its original place to another part of the body, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the primary tumor.

An overall five-year survival rate of kidney cancer is 92%. If it has spread to the surrounding lymph nodes it is 65% and if it has metastasized it is 12%.Around 208,500 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed in the world every year. The best for survival is early diagnosis and timely treatment.

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