A tumor is a phenomenon when cells divide abnormally and uncontrollably causing a lump termed as Tumor. Same phenomenon when happens in the bone it is called Bone Tumor, The real cause of Bone tumor is still unknown, it is also two types Benign and Malignant (cancerous):
BENIGN BONE TUMORS:
- Osteochondromas: The most common type of benign bone tumor is an osteochondroma. This type accounts for between 35 and 40 percent of all benign bone tumors. These tumors develop in adolescents and teenagers. Surgery is curative treatment.
- Non-ossifying fibroma unicameral: It is a simple solitary bone cyst. It’s the only true cyst of bone. Usually found in the leg and occurs most often in children and adolescents. Surgery is curative treatment.
- Giant cell tumors: these are rare tumors found in the rounded end of the bone and not in the growth plate. These are very rare tumors. Surgery is curative treatment.
- Enchondroma: These called to be part of syndromes called Ollier’s and Maffucci’s syndrome, it is a cartilage cyst that grows in the bone marrow. When they occur, they begin in childhood and persist as adults. Surgery is curative treatment.
- Aneurysmal bone cyst: An aneurysmal bone cyst is an abnormality of blood vessels that begins in the bone marrow. It can grow rapidly and can be particularly destructive because it affects growth plates. Surgery is curative treatment.
- Fibrous dysplasia: These are gene mutation that makes bones fibrous and vulnerable to fracture.
MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS:
- Osteosarcoma: It is the most common malignant bone tumor which occurs mostly in children and adolescents, is the second most common type of bone cancer. This usually develops around the hip, knee, and shoulder. Treatment requires chemotherapy and surgery.
- Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs): These strikes adolescents and young adults, but it can sometimes affect children as young as 5 years old. This type of bone cancer usually shows up in the legs (long bones), pelvis, backbone, ribs, upper arms, and the skull. Treatment requires chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.
- Chondrosarcoma: In Middle-aged people and older adults these more likely than other age groups to develop chondrosarcoma. These bone cancer usually develops in the hips, shoulders, and pelvis. Surgery is usually curative.
- Secondary bone cancer: The secondary bone cancer means that cancer started somewhere else in the body and then spread to the bone. It usually affects older adults. Radiation therapy to the local painful area is helpful.
- Multiple myelomas: This cancer originates in the bone marrow. Most commonly affects older adults. It needs immunochemotherapy as treatment. Not curable in the current scenario.
Causes of Bone Cancer:
The right causes of bone tumors aren’t known. A few possible causes are genetics, radiation treatment, and injuries to the bones. Osteosarcoma has been linked to radiation treatment (particularly high doses of radiation) and other anticancer drugs, especially in children. However, a direct cause hasn’t been identified.