Adenoids are masses of lymph tissue, located behind the roof of the mouth and nose, in the pharynx. They are not visible. Similar to tonsils, adenoids help you fight infection as the first line of defence against bacteria and viruses. Adenoiditis is the inflammation of these glands. Adenoiditis mainly occurs in children below 15 years of age, and incidence decreases with age. The condition is rare after 15 years of age although not unheard of. Adenoiditis is a very common disease, with approximately10 million cases reported each year. It is a communicable disease and spreads through airborne respiratory droplets and saliva.
Symptoms of Adenoiditis vary depending on the cause of infection and severity. Normally the symptoms include:
- Sore throat
- Stuffy nose
- Swollen glands in the neck
- Obstruction of airways resulting in oral breathing and nasal speech
- Ear pain
- Difficulty sleeping, snoring or sleep apnoea
Acute Adenoiditis has symptoms that include:
- Runny nose
- Oral breathing
- Snoring and Sleep apnoea
- Pus secretion from nose
When to see a doctor?
See a doctor if your children or loved ones experience any symptoms of these disease. Always trust premier institutions like Paras Hospitals Group, which have specialized departments for treatment and care of this condition.
Causes and Risk Factors
Adenoiditis can be bacterial or viral. Bacterial Adenoiditis is caused by bacteria like Streptococcus.Viral Adenoiditis can be caused by a number viruses like the Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus or rhinovirus.
Risk factors include:
- Allergies to various substances
- Airborne infection from others
- Recurring infections of throat, nose or neck
- Infection of tonsils (Adenoiditis is sometimes accompanied by tonsillitis
Treatments and Management
Treatments include medications such as analgesics and anti-pyretics for viral infections, bacterial infection require treatment with anti-biotics. In case of adenoid hypertrophy (Recurrent Adenoiditis that causes enlargement of adenoids), adenoids may be surgically removed in a procedure called Adenoidectomy.