Cervical dysplasia is an extremely dangerous pathology and the most frequent precancerous form that changes the structure of the mucous membrane of the cervix and vagina. Dysplasia can be of various origins, but it is always accompanied by a disruption of the cellular structure of the epithelium. It affects not only the upper layers but can penetrate much deeper.
Causes and Risk Factors
Causes of cervical dysplasia
In many women with cervical dysplasia, HPV (human papillomavirus) is found in cervical cells. HPV infection occurs in women and men and most often affects sexually active women at the age of about 20 years.
Risk factors for cervical dysplasia
Chronic HPV infection is one of the leading risk factors for the development of cervical dysplasia, especially mild and severe.
In women, the increased risk of HPV is associated with:
- Early onset of sexual activity
- Presence of several sexual partners
- The presence of a partner who had several sexual partners
Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia
Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia, as a rule, during the regular examination is not possible. To do this, you need to do Pap smear. Although the Pap test itself will help to determine not only cervical dysplasia but also its degree, additional tests are often required to formulate a treatment plan. It can be:
- Repeated Pap tests;
- Colposcopy (examination of the cervix to detect abnormal cells) and biopsy;
- Endocervical curettage is a procedure for identifying abnormal cells in the cervical canal;
- Cone biopsy or electrosurgical excision. Cone biopsy is a procedure during which the doctor removes a cone-shaped piece of tissue. And at electrosurgical excision, the abnormal fabric is cut out using a low-voltage electrified wire loop for its analysis in the laboratory.
- A DNA test of HPV that can identify strains of HPV that can cause cervical cancer.
Treatment of Cervical Dysplasia
When normal cells undergo a genetic mutation that turns healthy cells into abnormal cells can lead to cancer. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a fixed rate, eventually dying at a set time. The cancer cells grow and multiply out of control and do not die. The cells that accumulate abnormal form a mass (tumor).
Treatment for cervical dysplasia depends on many factors, including the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Other treatments for cervical dysplasia include:
- Cryosurgery (freezing);
- Electro cautery;
- Laser Surgery;
- Traditional surgery.