For contraception means of the methods or devices used to prevent conception, however, by extension, the term is also used as a synonym for birth control or fertility control, referring to the methods used to prevent pregnancy (even after conception).
Combined methods that contain estrogen and progestogen and that can be administered as pills, injections, vaginal ring or transdermal patch.
Methods that contain the only progestogen and that can be administered as
- Pills, injections, implants, vaginal ring or intrauterine device.
- Emergency hormonal contraception that may consist of levonorgestrel pills alone or in combination pills
Non-hormonal reversible methods:
- Intrauterine devices with copper.
- Male (condom) and female barrier contraceptives (condom, diaphragm, spermicides).
- Method of lactational amenorrhea.
- Periodic abstinence methods (rhythm or calendar, fixed days or collar of the cycle, basal temperature, cervical mucus (Billings), symptothermal).
Permanent non-hormonal methods:
- Voluntary surgical contraception (sterilization) female.
- Voluntary surgical contraception (sterilization) male.
Choosing a Contraceptive Method
Each person must choose their contraception method according to their life situation (lifestyle, sexual life, number of children they wish to have, number of couples, values, socio-economic status, etc.). The characteristics that are acceptable for a woman and the health conditions that may be affected by the use of the method (high blood pressure, smoking habit, cardiovascular diseases, reproductive tract infections, etc.) should also be taken into account.
The role of the health professional is to inform about all the options and verify the eligibility criteria, in such a way that it facilitates the user to make their own, free and informed decision. It should also inform and guide on the management of side effects, or possible problems that arise, and offer the MAC change if the user so wishes. This process of information and guidance must be continuous during the follow-up.