The menopause is the period that marks the interruption of the woman’s menstruation and the end of egg release by the ovaries. A woman is considered to be in the menopause when a year has passed without menstruation. The exact moment of a woman’s last menstrual period can only be clarified by going back to past facts.
Menopause is a normal phase of the aging process. Both follicle stimulating hormone (HFS) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted by the pituitary gland and this is one of the features of a normal menstrual cycle.
The cause of premature menopause can be genetic or caused by autoimmune conditions. These conditions produce antibodies that can damage the ovaries. Surgical removal of the ovaries causes artificial menopause as well as the treatment of cancer in the pelvis by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Symptoms and Complications
Before her period completely stops, a woman may experience a variety of uncomfortable symptoms, such as hot flashes, irritability, night sweats, decreased bladder control, bladder infections, vaginal dryness, and pain during sex. These symptoms may also continue after menopause.
Fluctuating hormone levels can also make a woman feel irritable, tired and nervous. It can also have sleep disturbances, headaches, dizziness or fast or irregular heartbeat.
Postmenopausal women are more likely to develop osteoporosis, a phenomenon characterized by bone thinning.
A doctor will make a diagnosis based on a woman’s symptoms and taking into account her medical history, the results of a physical examination and laboratory tests targeting hormonal levels.
Treatment and Prevention
The menopause experience is exclusive to every woman, and the treatment targets the most troublesome symptoms.
- It can be treated with prescription medications and lifestyle changes.
- Prescription medications that can help treat hot flushes include hormone therapy (estrogen with or without progestin) in the form of a pill, patch or skin gel
- Women who experience hot flashes before they reach menopause may benefit from hormone therapy because it will reduce their symptoms.
- Since hormone therapy causes side effects and risks when its use is prolonged, a woman and her doctor must weigh the benefits and potential risks of this treatment and take the lowest the management of his symptoms.