Juvenile arthritis is a type of autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease can be highlighted as a disorder in which the immune system which normally protects the body from foreign substances starts to attacks the body instead. The exact cause of this disease is still unknown. Some studies believe that juvenile arthritis can be related to certain type of infections, genetics, and environmental triggers.
Types of Juvenile Arthritis:
There are five types of juvenile arthritis:
Systemic arthritis: It usually causes high fever and a rash. Boys and girls are equally affected.
Oligoarthritis: This type of arthritis affects fewer than five joints in the very first six months.
Polyarthritis: It involves five or more joints in the very first six months of disease. The pain points are often the same joints on each side of the body.
Psoriatic arthritis: It affects children who have both arthritis and the skin disorder psoriasis.
Enthesitis-related arthritis: This type of arthritis often afflicts the hips, spine, eyes, and entheses.
Signs And Symptoms Associated With Juvenile Arthritis:
Usually, there are no symptoms detected among children who are affected by juvenile arthritis. Type of arthritis can be detected depending upon the symptoms. Following are the symptoms of juvenile arthritis:
Pain, tenderness in the joints and swelling
Stiffness in joints
Fatigue and weight loss
Redness and pain in eyes
Diagnosis of Juvenile Arthritis:
It is difficult to diagnose because there is no actual test for juvenile arthritis and diagnosis is done by excluding other conditions that can cause similar symptoms like infection, bone disorder, lupus, fibromyalgia or cancer.
The doctor will start with complete medical history and will perform the complete medical examination. Some of the tests may include Complete blood count, x-rays, Lab tests, Imaging tests, tests for viruses and Lyme disease, blood cultures, test for rheumatoid, erythrocyte sedimentation, bone marrow examination etc.
The treatment for juvenile arthritis includes both medication and exercises. The plan for the treatment is based on the type of juvenile arthritis detected.