Children are prone to get various infection including viral, bacterial, protozoal etc. after birth when they are exposed to external environment via multiple sources like food, water, air, insects etc. To protect our children from such infections we have vaccines against certain very important microorganisms.
These vaccines are available since birth in predefined immunisation schedule as per age of the child. Immunisation schedule are prepared in such a manner that child should get vaccinated early as well as vaccine is effective at that particular age. A child should get vaccinated at the minimum age recommended or later but not earlier as vaccine may not be as effective. If any child missed certain vaccine at recommended age it can be vaccinated up to certain age as per catch up immunisation schedule. If child is already having disease, they can develop immunity against viral illness but they still prone to bacterial infection and need to be vaccinated to prevent recurrence of infection.
Immunisation is the best way to protect our children from infectious diseases as once they acquire infection, severity of illness could be very high and even needs hospitalisation with critical care support, which leads to morbidity and mortality in some instances. Cost benefit ratio of immunisation is also very low as expenses of treatment could be quite high. Illness can also lead to loss of school days as well as failure to attend some important occasions like exams, competitive games etc.
Below mention table gives a broad idea about immunisation schedule and catch up immunisation. Detail about individual immunisation and few additional immunisations likeinfluenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Human papilloma virus could be discussed with paediatrician on personal visit.
|Administer these vaccines to all newborns before hospital
|6 weeks||DTwP 1
|10 weeks||DTwP 2
If RV1 is chosen, the first dose should be given at 10 weeks
|14 weeks||DTwP 3|
|6 months||OPV 1
|Hepatitis-B: The final (3rd or 4th ) dose in the HepB vaccine
series should be administered no earlier than age 24 weeks and
at least 16 weeks after the first dose.
|9 months||OPV 2
|9-12 months||Typhoid Conjugate
|12 months||Hep-A 1||Hepatitis A:
|15 months||MMR 2
Varicella: The risk of breakthrough varicella is lower if given
|16 to 18 months||DTwP B1/DTaP B1
|The first booster (4thth dose) may be administered as early as
age 12 months, provided at least 6 months have elapsed since
the third dose.
|18 months||Hep-A 2||Hepatitis A: 2
nd dose for inactivated vaccines only
|2 years||Booster of Typhoid
|4 to 6 years||DTwP B2/DTaP B2
|Varicella: the 2nd dose can be given at anytime 3 months after
the 1st dose.
MMR: the 3rd dose is recommended at 4-6 years of age.
|10 to 12 years||Tdap/Td
|Tdap: is preferred to Td followed by Td every 10 years
II. IAP recommended vaccines for High-risk* children (Vaccines under special circumstances) #:
3-Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine
6-Yellow Fever Vaccine
7-Pneumococcal Polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV 23)
* High-risk category of children: