Osteoporosis means weak bones which are prone to fractures. Hip, spine, and wrist are commonly involved sites. There typically are no symptoms detected in the early stage of bone loss. But once your bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you may have signs and symptoms that include:
Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
Loss of height over time
A stooped posture
A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected
Predisposing factors or Risk Factors of Osteoporosis
Females – osteoporosis is more common in females as compared to males
Older age- as we grow older we are more prone to osteoporosis
If parents and siblings are having osteoporosis there will be more probability of developing osteoporosis
Hyperthyroidism- if thyroid gland is secreting more hormone possibility of developing osteoporosis is more
Underweight/ malnourishment – malnourished/undernourished people develop osteoporosis more frequently
Use of steroids- long-term steroid use can cause osteoporosis
Antiepileptics- prolong use of few antiepileptics can cause osteoporosis
Renal failure- patient with chronic kidney disease develop osteoporosis more frequently
Lack of exercise
Chronic alcohol use
Complications associated with Osteoporosis:
Hip and spine fractures can cause severe pain. These fractures can occur even with insignificant trauma. In old age can lead to prolonged bed bound state
Prevention of Osteoporosis:
A healthy diet rich in proteins and calcium, vitamin D can prevent osteoporosis.
Maintain an appropriate weight.
Diagnosis of Osteoporosis:
History of bony pains stooped posture, fractures due to insignificant trauma in older age should raise the suspicion. Osteoporosis is diagnosed by DEXA Scan.
Treatment associated with Osteoporosis:
Recommendations for treatment are based on an estimate of the risk of breaking a bone in next 10 years using information from bone density test. If the risk is not high then treatment may not include medication and may focus on modifying the risk factor for bone loss and falls.
Bisphosphonates ( alendronate, ibandronate, alendronate) are the treatment of choice. Should be taken according to your doctors advise.