Obesity is a condition in which the excess body fat accumulated to the extent has a negative effect on health. It is commonly caused by excessive food intake, sedentary lifestyle etc. Obese women having a risk of development of coronary artery disease. Abdominal obesity can be more harmful. The only risk factor is the waist circumference for developing CAD in normal weight or overweight women.
Development or progression of low back pain and knee osteoarthritis implicated by obesity in women. Lumber back pain and excess load on the joint occur due to obesity. And it also increased a cartilage tumour and risk of degenerative maniacal lesions.
Overweight or obese increases the risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease in women. It negatively affects the fertility as well. Obese women have a higher risk of multiple cancers, like cervical cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. There are many negative effects of obesity on the reproductive system. Also due to obesity there is decreased in pregnancy rates and increased in pregnancy complications. It also reduces the risk of pregnancy and also decreases the rate of conception because of high levels of leptin and low levels of Adiponectin.
Obesity can lead to common pregnancy complications like pregnancy induced, high blood pressure called preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. The increase in androgen metabolism and decreased in estrogens level occur in obese women. It can also cause irregular menstrual, the absence of ovulation, and more difficulty in conception.
Because of obesity, there is an increase in production of insulin in the body as well as less production of insulin which leads to erratic ovulation, which is referred to as ‘PCOS’ i.e. polycystic ovarian syndrome, 35% to 65% of PCOS patients are obese and also have a risk factor of infertility.
The abdominal obesity occurs in women are strongly related to PCOS and cardiovascular disease (Abdominal obesity: – waist circumference is > 88 cm in women). The obese women have a higher risk of developing hypertension. Overweight and obesity are associated with hyperinsulinemia and plays a role in the development of hypertension in women, also the other factor includes hypercaloric intake.