Our skin is the exterior shield is prone to various traumas and insults that can lead to unsightly scars. Also, it can be caused by various skin diseases like acne and other inflammatory conditions. The scar is a natural process and squeal of the healing process post any trauma or burn or disease. The kind of scar produced will vary depending upon skin type, individual predisposition based on ethnicity, genetics, age and the nature of the injury and likewise, its size and location will vary. Nutritional status wound care, smoking habit, medicinal drug intake also affects the healing and final scar. The scar produced can be of various types that include-
Hypertrophic scar– that is raised above skin surface
Keloid scar-raised and extends beyond original wound size
Contracture scar-mostly post burn that shrinks & tightens the skin and tissue affecting mobility
Atrophic scar-due to loss of tissue and strength
Depressed scar– a pit is formed due to tissue loss
Acne scar– which again can be of various types-pigmentary, ice pick, rolling, boxcar, keloidal, atrophic, depressed scar
Treatment and Management of Scars:
Measures like early intervention and treatment, adequate care, proper care, alignment, infection prevention, hydration, releasing tension, removing foreign body help in preventing and/or minimizing the scar. Various treatment modalities include:
Pressure dressings that may contain silicon
Topical treatment include creams and ointments containing silicone gel & sheets and steroids
Laser Resurfacing (CO2 fractional ), a number of acne scars can be addressed by chemical peels like glycolic/jessners/TCA and subcision, micro-needling (derma roller)
Multiple sessions at varied intervals and more than one modality may need to be employed. For similar type and extent of scar results will vary due to individual factors.
Strict sun protection is advised during many of above treatments. Factors that impair wound healing like smoking, stress, diabetes, internal diseases, anemia, and malnutrition should be addressed to maximize the results.