Bleeding during pregnancy is a cause of great concern and worry. Vaginal bleeding complicates around 20-25% of all pregnancies. There are many causes of bleeding during pregnancy, sub chorionic hematoma being one of them.
Bleeding in the sub chorionic space occurs when the placenta detaches from the original site of implantation. This forms a sub chorionic haemorrhage or hematoma. The membranes are lifted apart and a space is created between the placenta and uterus. Small clots cause less complications and larger ones may cause heavy bleeding.
Other causes of bleeding during pregnancy
Cause- Cause of formation of hematoma is not fully understood.
Diagnosis- It can be made by a simple ultrasound examination. The progress can also be monitored by ultrasound for the increase or decrease in size and resolution of the same. It is seen as hypoechoic or anechoic crescent shaped area.
Treatment- Consists of drugs to prevent miscarriage.
Complications- Most small hematomas are not harmful and resolve on their own. We just need to monitor them and you may have a normal healthy term baby. Large clots are related to risks.
If >30% placenta is dislodged it causes clot to grow fast leading to spontaneous abortion.
Increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labour, placental abruption and preterm rupture of membranes is there.
Conclusion- Sub chorionic clot in patients during first trimester increases the risk of miscarriage and other complications, but presence of clot does not always increase adverse pregnancy outcome. Close monitoring and treatment of pregnancy can have good outcome and result in healthy baby.