Endometriotic cyst also called as “ chocolate cyst” of the ovary is a type of cyst of the ovary. It is a space in the ovary that contains fluid and the semi-solid material called as a complex ovarian cyst. It is a blood-filled cyst inside the ovary. It is formed when the tissue lining the inside of uterus called endometrial tissue regurgitates and implants on the ovary and surrounding tissue and starts growing there. This tissue responds to the female hormones in a similar manner as endometrium and hence when this bleeds, blood accumulates and irritates the surrounding tissue and forms cysts filled with non clotted blood.
Chocolate cyst gets their name from the dark old blood which is black tarry resembling chocolate.
Symptoms associated with ovarian cysts:
Abdominal cramps and swelling during menstrual cycles
It can rupture also causing acute pain. Contents may spill on ovaries and other organs. Complications such as infection, adhesions can occur. Its a case of rupture or torsion, immediate surgery is needed. It can also impair fertility and prevent pregnancy.
How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?
Diagnosis is made usually on history, examination, USG or MRI can be done. Blood tests are also done. Infertility is a major problem faced by such women. Medication is given according to the need of the patient. Painkillers, oral contraceptive pills, progesterone, GnRH can be given for relief of symptoms. If infertility is the problem infertility treatment is given.
Treatment associated with ovarian cysts:
Surgery is done if there is no relief with medication. Laparoscopy is the gold standard to give relief of symptoms, stopping the progression of the disease, better quality of life and better fertility.
In very severe cases, if the family is complete then removal of the uterus with ovaries can be done.