Panchkula, July 28, 2018: On the occasion of World Hepatitis Day, Dr Ashish Arora, Consultant Internal Medicine, Paras Bliss Hospital, today in an advisory gave information of different types of hepatitis and its prevention.
He said Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver and viral hepatitis is the leading cause. It is the leading cause of hepatitis. Almost all cases are caused by one of the 5 viral agents – hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus(HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). All types of viruses cause clinically similar illness ranging from asymptomatic to fulminant infection. HBV, HCV and HDV can cause chronic infections leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
In case of Hepatitis A, mode of transmission is faeco-oral route. People living in overcrowded areas, travelling in HAV endemic areas, i.v. drug abusers, homosexual men are at increased risk of developing the disease. Dr Arora said it can be prevented by maintaining proper hygiene and vaccination. Both passiveimmunization with IG and active immunization with vaccine is available. IG can be given tounvaccinated persons who had exposure to HAV.
The doctor while explaining Hepatitis B, said, contacts of HBV patients, pregnant women, babies born to HBsAg positive mothers, i.v. drugusers, people with multiple sexual partners are at high risk of developing the disease. Active immunization in the form of vaccine should be offered to all newborns andunvaccinated high risk people. 3 doses of vaccine are given. For unvaccinated person sustaining an exposure to HBV, HBIG as well as vaccine should be offered, he suggested.
Hepatitis D occurs only in people who are already infected with HBV. So, prevention is to prevent HBV infection, while Hepatitis C is transmitted predominantly by percutaneous route. Leading cause of chronic viralhepatitis.No vaccine is available for prevention.
Dr Arora informed Hepatitis E is transmitted by faeco-oral route. It can be prevented by maintaining properhygiene. Autoimmune hepatitis he said is caused by immune system defect that results in body attacking its own cells. Symptoms are similar to viral hepatitis. Treatment is steroids and immuno suppressant drugs.