Hypertensive medically can be divided into two types etiologically – Primary or essential hypertension and Secondary hypertension. It is a lifestyle disease that is affecting the urban population at an alarming rate. Noted as the silent killer, the disease doesn’t have many noticeable signs and symptoms, however of left undetected can cause serious medical complications.
Primary or Essential Hypertension:
They comprise of 95% of hypertensive patients in which high BP results from complex interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factor.It is found in 10 to 30% of adults. The onset is usually between 25 to 50 yrs and is uncommon before 20 yrs.
The factors that cause this type of hypertension include – obesity, sleep apnoea, high salt intake , excess alcohol use ,smoking, polycythemia, NSAID(Pain killer) drug abuse, low potassium intake , etc.
Hypertension with associated with other lifestyle disorders can cause major damage. The term Metabolic Syndrome (obesity,dyslipidemia,insulin resistance) is associated with hypertension and adverse cardiovascular outcome).
In totality it can be concluded that in cases where the life style is casing the hypertension , it is regarded as the primary or essential hypertension.
This type is observed in approx 5% of patients. Such patients have hypertension secondary to specific cause- hence it is caused due to a medical condition or is an effect. It is suspected in patient who develop hypertension at early age or those previously well controlled becomes refractory to treatment.
Secondary causes includes Diabetes,genetic syndrome, kidney disease,renal vascular hypertension, cushing syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism ,pheochromocytom ,coarctation of aorta, hypertension associated with pregnancy,estrogen use, hypercalcemia,hyper and hypothyroidism,acromegaly,increased intracranial pressure and drugs include cyclosporine,erythropoetin,decongestant,cocain and NSAID etc.
Hence it can be concluded that Hypertension can present itself independently or can be present due to another disease complication. If you start to experience major high fluctuations in your BP , are experiencing headaches, nosebleeds and nausea, it is best that you consult a specialist today. Adherence to the recommended medication plan is equally important as non compliance can cause a higher risk.