Obesity has a number of adverse effects and it increases the risk of mortality and morbidity. The obese are more prone to developing morbidity or other chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and dyslipidemia,non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, gall bladder disease and gout. The risk of developing conditions like arthritis, back pain,infertility, sleep disorders and other respiratory conditions leads to increased morbidity among the obese.
Cardiovascular disease and Stroke:-Obesity is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) with the degree of obesity being directly proportional to the rate of development of CHD. A reduction in weight leads to improvement in cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and abnormal lipid levels. When the blood vessels of the brain are diseased, they may rapture or there may be inadequate blood supply to brain resulting in a stroke. This may be due to hypertension or fatty deposits in blood vessels of the obese.
Diabetes:-Obesity is a major cause of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.It is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia (Increase level of circulating insulin in blood). Obesity management is the key for control diabetes mellitus.
Gall bladder disease:-Obesity is one of the major risk factor for formation of gallstones. Thesuper saturation of bile with cholesterol in obese individuals makes them prone to having gall stones.
Syndrome X: -People with intra-abdominal obesity with a high waist to hip ratio are more prone to develop the metabolic syndrome X. This is characterized by the collective presence of chronic disorder that include glucose intolerance, insulin resistance hyperlipidemia and hypertension.
Cancer: –Risk of cancers of the colon, rectum and prostrate increase greatly in obese men while obese women are more likely to develop cancer of breast, ovary, endometrium and cervix.
Back pain, arthritis and Gouts: –Abdominal obesity increase the risk of back pain because of the extra load on the spinal column. Obesity is also associated with the development of osteoarthritis and gouts.
Infertility:-Obese women are reported to suffer more from menstrual disorder, infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Sleep Disorder:-Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)is very common problem among obese male and female both.
Psychological Problems:-Obese people may be exposed to ridicule and discrimination in areas like employment, promotions and social interaction. This may result in low self-esteem and depression leading to overeating for consolation.